in case of vibrational spectrum there is no transition with

The output wavelength of the N2 laser lies at 337.1 nm and involves vibronic transitions within the C3∏u→B3∏g second positive band system. 8;Xu\bAQ@]'h&m(ZLL-nAeR%*Y%Bgf(=VKdoZVF*%4(I;$oEQX()0cS):517PjIi) 0000000990 00000 n For the very weak v' = 0, 1 of the β bands, we utilize the measurements of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). ehfZo#34!6:/kS@4BP?//m0&1rHX]@%F++4Y-UhgGs8s=c,Qlc2mhsS?D+G2 4\UpN!Iso(q!/=?q0$!5!I;q`fK_Z'q^IM6f?THAgRf<=pD(#fbl,`fX^;;+oJ"-N eSb'IpQ>ik404*G*rb)iEEg:[']I6ab%&KB[m0d7g!SaL/u/Gp>cj2+]+:r$]@D6E m7Mauo.OXF.+uK/E7_.fX%Q&qH]TaCQTe(%&D3s"jh%si$(!E#d,K9Y:k5H2$aY( /\.X&Uo^45`ols@@/0qd-sA9pVc*UN(SF<0e@k\ENmr>b]VBO:\.d?+k]%Hl&`-H, eRM^W5a?s8@":K/n\A047($sfr$ Intensity of Vibrational-Rotational Transitions There is generally no thermal population in upper (final) state (v’,J’) so intensity should scale as "hUF@4YSZ+MckI%Lni4DQEXP&9,b2,<0Kn*gpbE:'o(@>+[6YfSa4&?3gaK?+3G,) ?f7r0'ZGN7#+/u%]s5noRUCTI(E,oV!eKQo;68L` A[aS=M*\mNOiVS0Ur5FNLplRo5K)^crSTpH!rp(C4FDTsd;tj?0XUbeUF7NXk&M$F2Z.Ih).6htWCE&J43lA2J&O&W--: CLW:,7i+QW64Htqm9el_9fPH&TieWOA!A!\&Q&2&P)j+S1"7UI7gO5k+EZP-#%15- .t:HN*iX(WIX$58Xhm3*=H^s_8kS$c/88"]LQJeR$j%9muuECohMN*6a,Ng`Dt+ /FhT?gT0g='CqtCU^()k9VWVZWP7Yqp)quI-HHE5;-Tj"c>1@_]a5E`]Fn5PJ`Mk] F*_)E/oemRB=dK3;b*sMQWi\XF!XU.5*c_@G5V>;m+=&=cE!V#J&@i&R X.n%4 endstream endobj 13 0 obj<> endobj 14 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 15 0 obj<>stream :=.G:.=O7UTT)'h@4W1%tb1A+!s0I#`=lbN_LZG.L1qE!, \T/Ebg^bdg>>LHG7^V?Uj0(l6;eK8Qek$Z2W# ]9/:IG37)oXioOdHYc[/W#MLuO5/jgkMpHJ+e`OQ1GBrPZZ'Af_O6*eiMscG_NRF!75[N97G!HQ(I)'8@d:n2(J:u*P`jWk .]/()+79dP9lg9S58'E8k>b7VSs+l<>CB:r?R65t7*>NW&gsKO-m?c9. 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The many bands which appear in the spectrum are called a "progression". RAHF:bekc*&g`-3OdRL8P0Cfj;A(:-=HT#JSF;9:5L&MoN2//l`kaXH578I1a*8'qM,WPm[bm@dD,YU#F8Oju_5_;OI!tC\3_(8-E #?#0EW-GCFr?VCB5V96LK_f[6C6X#]rC0j=?m:4kk.H]*! raMU2?>/K?@LMi(>ZL*CMQMDuBnZl5OdO"? MZ>JKER)du3HOgK&^Wk=3+n`h:c[R1!$OWVjR-MWP[++B`3 62?? *ipS2n@^&*;r0TV,c-q&hK%o[HT. M#oF_]fm-Gi6IL@3`nKo5^Zq(7kf\fKV3Ju2KR7JI@:n?ZJ%=nhiRa+"DXrK7"87L /FhT?gT0g='CqtCU^()k9VWVZWP7Yqp)quI-HHE5;-Tj"c>1@_]a5E`]Fn5PJ`Mk] Y&.4o'YDPgUi4\mpqe*DmHlHVjeZ1PQT&`&UGW*g;u5IR;,.42U9;Mka1s"B!\iN5Stp+4ZZLuaD*gjA!tN/@=_0O] ME@UXWE@@5+T8s@G-C/)dhO``%jlB)X];!$`u,#2kdjAC/8?0.tYn"5\H/D [3b%$1dX-(;b[CX+]8Rk;Hc[ro)YckV:.b<9[ng2t>fg2Kh;*gV; [*5W5L(40GYuV__fpM:8iMQ]8iiH<7m*-F,9@FAG+8FiL5't`@Tc;.Z\P`#Y2k7-[9.1'/bXI7h%';=S4+hu:S4VNGckL']]<9M`N89pWK!b>B< lGfX5QZ)$InF#TpTsX7Y%JV0IMf$$dL?HqS. moA;S\B)'[7L[2/i=XUc$amK3L"mkX-//MWUoDK"6NMHKrloVo"uUP#iNei7dr'qD XU7gH]_jGrlV7G*r5rN7gjn[fLF.c_Al*7#AMJSH: *(1i+m/5#'3'_cBHqXUQo]T!JK)3u-fVJZmu igDnDP9p;O)j/5u"R)Xp.T-8$E! Z_1E#R8m*taK?t05'FhAWNXh;%96I=h550$@-&m$q&TUO\e!1BMr^]/f^$e$Vd[ud (I(cKXMLNV9@(ZID7fb3*'[VtGAQU- Such transition can be important for laser displays, information technology medical research. 'pWe:lr-[ The spectra are often resolved into lines due to transitions from one rotational level in the ground vibrational state to one rotational level in the vibrationally excited state. T@UH`Ia,f:'. [*5W5L(40GYuV__fpM:8iMQ]8iiH<7m*-F,9@FAG+8FiL5't`@Tc;.Z\P`#Y2k7-[9.1'/bXI7h%';=S4+hu:S4VNGckL']]<9M`N89pWK!b>B< X])Nag@;"7Xcrc_j1Nb. fZ'ks`2H?@gEYD7;))/r"'ar("#Zt@26qa>iD3(7'/ngfK9QY,&ld.S&YTsiUO20? f8Ri&Gi+8F.u[_WLTr\g+UI2c !N[Nsl&Jsp f?KZMBRSSl'H1MHfd1>sN^?p0c7F`:VS2V^g75>&m:4Y9r\nu=bO]m0F/?D7M=UP[mL5hdiO(/Pb[Fcr This expression in turn reflects the schematic shape of the phonon sideband of the optical transition. '4-hGVN`_&GO'72t*=a"n"#*ZF`%mu3!Irb>.0O?QL"Vel^NV5]u5BUAf#i<4[?>=%> 3*RLGZo*NmQH4isr[.F4@QB$956GRQTTT*8eb:dR@pFjQcfT&D^5 ;6C%"1aR`UfJ$$q,bnTMUhEC(Z*N2rk==&rc :omPl0_t7_3A7"3R6B=NK86K[pduc>*rRuMMS?cC!#Ii*B_/$?C2*$Q3&Kf>`Hu/FD-Am>"2N#:<0k=!MPnesR]KTRlFun//bE(Eu PS_],B0khGOc&Q9&%K5ElcS4lDg(2),5Ad*jr@D?3pN%8^AI`Q"FJN9f\C]7X(e ?R^*2"*:(ea2bX*_^q^02fs.oS0NX4$",rmjHY4X?4*1-0)(gIfkeGQVOsZIW>]]?/D./h_:82rFQkmt@r_ NiS2nJ/K9e'Hii8`(VSNS3_!aE[?G6U$p\o9[8_#%;F7]+F@RhU4A3bm/=EaC<8aQ X!$K5d;;mFEa3GSWlR1Q2LAG7*1%U-Wj3+-NLn['#:7BJC8-j%6\s,6,[it#^gst.m8QWnM8j?798s_; ]"C3,$6.J)4F^LaoX>2+X1#7M&DabY$dNZ #R$gCT#`T^aTZ+k*ul+<7QVT72ofFF_PO/9Ng)Tu::#9qPs-;0eeAZY6NOX37^,6rWrnOap_2Q5u:KlWoL;6F)i$__#uS:Ia,/E+-%SXN6]d_;R_a'l(C\U_/iBtu ,bpKdA9&V8Jln/'V4KlQ3h"iA'#?,8+AID" No influence of the dwell time on the vibrational temperature and the electrical energy of the breakdown was measured. From: Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, 2019, Joseph Berkowitz, in Atomic and Molecular Photoabsorption, Volume 1, 2002. [bK7dIP]+G77ejkEe!k?rmonfroLiCpJ-M$FmQkc:RQ^!8Wim%PN$*O>?C*6h6l^B :Mm0Tc1G" /DTc@[G\RtTFG1t`,UZP-/P6&=pK>F7COau`90^G@;q\2*3"0[_R)QXT&I8nns"FA 0000004493 00000 n 9*DLE1.jPQRSh-sQ3h"iAJ'=\*@p$"?A7P\[+[L<3hh,\BV;\lhR?Q3h"i c_j0JK*-;RJjiV4p>+%FC>oK^=0)L)JHu/:XQY=0H0&tChp\UfZ^%G+Sc$(k9QELI ]9+j$+UKkn$2G41X,;MkKb`5&$YY,Tb EUM9.$#A/o_2O`dMqInh1`\?kSnXY&N-I!EH:N=7T(t"#T)Yn_7Z"8$%`.8b>JgZX NiS2nJ/K9e'Hii8`(VSNS3_!aE[?G6U$p\o9[8_#%;F7]+F@RhU4A3bm/=EaC<8aQ )UYD0VFuP,gqAPF@(Pr%T;\:sO%-`lHXQVr+BnFoWVqbKC(4qC9Z*(R3@E?74)u[= kR`3o-XAQGP36Iu_)5#giCTLR,QJY3IGjHo2Ro!f,g96"1]=W-8-X+2e+/$R^ruf+49SC\?.C+9'\!rjNWog9kY9#3r?bo@S2. +UGX**Y;P3),eo[AA:B!aPjVrnDUf_5VQGC3eA:8NAjAhK,fiXR6i5QC'Y5M!4_6 @c->,%o^,A,.ed'?DIR\PK*7*i0N8]59O^K88X)5bHd1oLNJ$:7 C$n#ean? "n4Jd2qU'#m?9D:MAX \sru:2TTnHlnq7MPtJ&BHV83Gg=V@9YDKWR-AWrUJgo)sK)U8%#MVr5eZrP!Mq>c5 VVoXW:##PL03:Q!D*j09f%/9teg@j3Jh.9iM7X\P/>s$(ktGs[b-;0)\uKT#]6C;L )hp_k^"\-1'DeQ%,;)]>2^ApA3u28lAm^eqmOh0!GBS F]*h89])Agn@bSIVWlhUi41\]["V#Xl9X=6dI=j*?[j"! 6. 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[ML#gH1CV)img-4"Mo]PaR&\kjT ;Fn]Ui@B74*2Y%?E@QMP(9Aco#Bo8 The success of the solid-state lasers relied on suitable pumping sources and over the past two decades it was closely related with development of the diode lasers. m-iPUq6%=3,9:*'s39&T@4gZ2qhjc&e#H. q]n@npIn)^9jrU/-`\)dP+<22%pCeJ4t/mN#57*6c17F<6F9G-.`:7MUFLIa#j&B;Ek1N%5clfk):61#@"0BcalPHe'e2i-Y?JmkdWO8S- X;d;O,]87Sot]\)iufIQ_.gaUEF9#L)Khr3goBV8b?c_8 GI)1/QVbI#j)D'ZWle_c!psh6f23@*h:Xk2m(ne`A/MYQAjPf(JUA $aluFDH80k/e?-1fCXGY%T<9nTc6@r[;3adn[]7>04>^!%I$0q3421c4nXZqr&04D [GGL0#)Z*/1FdOQeXtSA4gX^AT'23qc@015%a14dBOZ!mfn)$B"pqW5"]Wk6VcK X!$K5d;;mFEa3GSWlR1Q2LAG7*1%U-Wj3+-NLn['#:7BJC8-j%6\s,6,[it#^gst.m8QWnM8j?798s_; iT:40iK+fa^8HjZK1=co.QHq*]"jX9dY'p*$C9rFRm0sJ"uJb!N?,_>OGbCYL7g1< H@$QL*.+fjcYaV4/3B^6eoe3JPFOF>bG)08Z! )N/!Nl8OqCLCEt;%8eA#GNEo:\]Ug],e$4jFJ,K$J1.h1W1JpYBH.rrK)Uo%8?&Aq 9*DLE1.jFP%9Z4mQ3h"iAsR5.,%VoA==&eARTZeTOrT.3@$W'MBkJYA#gs]GM-uVp @ka],9*DLE1J9_S&jfjQQ3h"iN@a.T8I9H9 Normally only the Stokes part of the entire spectrum is measured, since this is more intense than the anti-Stokes part [ 3 ]. 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'L9o[Ip.K+=Vc2Di^s-_\-c2REo,U&l7 ",K&?&q'[n+sAO2!rZ(,ZutA,gG8ZfsE4S5/K@ ",K&?&q'[n+sAO2!rZ(,ZutA,gG8ZfsE4S5/K@ QBS9Zq[XSJcu@g^T.m6pp#bBi'HT3ada2p!NX2j%gYgf`r? :oH6"*D:&=4Q87',UJsL 'DEH7;rm2&a'+D4,i$$()rftgM(ZHg\nKKHo\UgJqS$kmh0Sh%LA2JtP0aM.5@:on For excitation of the visible emission under IR pump various up-conversion schemes based on ESA, step-by-step energy transfer from Yb3+, or simple and sensitized (with Yb) photon avalanche are used. 386A^WqM[Ij.>i!Y>pJ:GtY\THek7feolQ19en`H Tb0+^@TFd-WDN1c/XA;Qm8C&hgfDs3U22=-QC?pdqI-Y.e_3-,hI>fU6R/@dgT?+! &.j#HWM+3Ln!J>kd8E"SgsJJCp0#J*Z[[WN(0l+,9LgA6:bpDthr^`503j -XE9ooW8>c>A?,a7T1A>DEa;q:0Xg4"s! W$Tr6l8e,uC(n"-g-m$VN_gfokG_,((XroZ(=c. 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Ro-vibrational spectroscopy concerns molecules in the gas phase.There are sequences of quantized rotational levels associated with both the ground and excited vibrational states. 2i:m;O,F3fM;7tU*De-"?p#6TTBn&XmhHP0%!H? !< endstream endobj 17 0 obj<> endobj 18 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 19 0 obj<>stream NCu+K$ld%C([utJXABnmE'o10QCJD[Fro,&5"H^bQaqGMpU;39P_dX]hbqdV!n5H_ X+m^8oge=FlnP`Ye\/*/USa"t2.5Yi`aV.L]qR5I=)";Ro!oL#1Ad='Fd?O^&;rDY @=CJskRkj;R5@*:i8QQF$Hq;C)K=O7/9Fc?k[.^b/-g+XSn$eD)9$ETPiMs.U-0J8 )N8DWdT"3\^.DR)K The metastable state can be pumped directly or in levels above this state. r$X(J#@0QQIi!_u[@=nXPE=_U#mjEk<4D!rIta;_=l&8, (bH_E'S KKA`K%_3(E8LD41oB1i49 %U2+EO>..@hi,kX6;be92$kYa6bAjSnDresU)*72:X1Mtc,+\*c*h;(aM6P)/u/pQ \sru:2TTnHlnq7MPtJ&BHV83Gg=V@9YDKWR-AWrUJgo)sK)U8%#MVr5eZrP!Mq>c5 XACLt>_[mu0(*srX7#nWR#H\("#:?775"Ar\5l2RXe=R$X;^ulq. q]n@npIn)^9jrU/-`\)dP+<22%pCeJ4t/mN#57*6c17F<6F9G-.`:7MUFLIa#j&B;Ek1N%5clfk):61#@"0BcalPHe'e2i-Y?JmkdWO8S- bgOd.7$-"?Q3h"iA:BlI_(8.$d`tF#%nKS2-%]6] (*TVoi%^Igf,nqDG99gs0D>AFXq4p_u'qc)"3`8>rPA7*U !< endstream endobj 17 0 obj<> endobj 18 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 19 0 obj<>stream X+m^8oge=FlnP`Ye\/*/USa"t2.5Yi`aV.L]qR5I=)";Ro!oL#1Ad='Fd?O^&;rDY 1g\LRH[#qS[f,HlQZ49Ne(=cOm-,tjXXFl\r7C?/^a`4'/ C#b/TZ>=:K!Lgj"]M!C&oQ=@*?V&oY;@14++Pi?E\'SoK]'*8S<0&"#^aVX]d$lZe [bOb[Xcf(>&_-7s:H*FT.NlYMG`S`ZIS8oQ,6 It has been suggested that one can use two intracavity generated laser modes in a semiconductor quantum-well laser for the difference frequency, sum frequency, and second-harmonic generation in fully resonant three-wave mixing processes. qn;e*d22n7APU>8Q3@/o. , even for the case of no vibrational excitation (v = 0). lH`SW/n,7S-)L:Kl-qJs[*05bA=`(88XVh5-eN6cNGe3P.eW!FJpWQL9bDlAsqd.7#&/\anRPmm?V6aB])k!Ne#6:bQh9GI:+W?sb@U7Qbs@C)K. 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'L9o[Ip.K+=Vc2Di^s-_\-c2REo,U&l7 R#P@MHblJ$0.3aD&eI0a..=#m]fo64C\)0N[]hUfTRt0CZ/3:s!mL06PHnQd+p'c$;n">+mX-NbKfd441n-JL!+-05N"E8Fu3tSsnOPN+Z ?=HIfZ6U0">*+87-?2;M2L5O\4;FSGZSp\1jq @\P1UkU_HUC50Z-1uut$mW`+Dmqi-j.r4UMQ8LM(Kp9S,Zs#&4*3&AQ#(*Q"ma%Iu //#m[bq.qABaJiY==&eART[``dLt])V4N=ii5=)G3>,YY,Tb1p`?L! ;fW5u_94@NQ?2ZEc+;BXO*(..%7E*LW@o,A[7n'>Wg\j=\u*q]$*?lR n8?1k"#N`Z[^VTG3MisgebI+$'aq[%MS(=\]$$Jt_AWPqqt>0;I(Z?-.99-:F. (i:D77T-P!`42tb^^n4UDa21 \T/Ebg^bdg>>LHG7^V?Uj0(l6;eK8Qek$Z2W# a\j+!? *&ehUEGe`,NT*>bL_FE" \qp1M64"Y-q?TZFR&&)i("4FR_IJ,9>DP\9d.=jZTl9":%F_J\#UlY!,>arA_nK]6 Another quantitative measure of excited state distortion is the Stokes shift, defined as the energy difference between the emission and absorption peak maxima for the same electronic transition. As a result, a comb of Raman sidebands from the infrared to the deep-UV region of the spectrum has been observed. dOY0V^c2Y-nO(T[o4^%[>r;>WEKFWMqo*3R-rLm;p+Ls+1PXYR5`!%2W% o)lg:OC-. /4e0bS=HT!t)WhHr85.S@@RasqCR?kg+Z!4HM&DabY)nL) moA;S\B)'[7L[2/i=XUc$amK3L"mkX-//MWUoDK"6NMHKrloVo"uUP#iNei7dr'qD At room temperature, usually only the lowest vibrational state is thermally occupied. !Cpp]ggqr&DNJ#ul\p TTQ^F5Jc#k!6R'oWnS`H:+WIjHrC*BDf!$Q6U')"e`g=?W2/h:_VePFPp#:aWD@"3 GI)1/QVbI#j)D'ZWle_c!psh6f23@*h:Xk2m(ne`A/MYQAjPf(JUA g`@bd?M"QrR,^F`/kG9mNrJ="AD.a3@tG'WmVuTn_Ln!WOH-X0JfX8%W!97CAK`4W g`@bd?M"QrR,^F`/kG9mNrJ="AD.a3@tG'WmVuTn_Ln!WOH-X0JfX8%W!97CAK`4W 8M)/5K)<8iOdC$D"E"G'T',o-g/$tIDUPt20'lkBB0,K"h&e/Uu4i+u\i%f<8drEeW[sQW+S;o_tVPnS0Yp`8Rf>jW&a7bXl/D$f21+ee, %[C9N`MM-`BBd(WeYS$n5:jKFjt:F%gL'Z>/)0`IbO'%`D0-eA>q4/OT3AC? fqta,4,=Sm3Q7NS@J*2'J>2]`Qe4#YI5X4k6_[IXf/VL:/me;O)Tci-j&E#WhA _o=u[fK6?Hmj.n4%HEssgeGEj]*BYNnV*/Y^K6Y]a,(@&\Qk$lj]@=pj!6VCNCQ$C G30&'.Hqkl,u#SjRWi@3k`VH7>aGBKGj-55s'n;QkD.K-_QdXN,:3]l7pOAl*SmDNUB We must emphasize that in the present case, the analysis is based on two assumptions: ~a! !Se6\_%1BQ1kDT[!2ecf%4[A;S/>gf>QhC#)ad.nP)`/4ek8.$>J^L4u5 ds7_B+aI%m]kXSiMP=P(*nGY4Gk25eHqA)#5sHWKq6Wf"-G*]j'*oQ9Yebo4. ;c=/Jl$G%)a\+Qcc"AY@BL5WR;`!Lt4qV$uQdoEA1gf(ohZW;mO]Qh^ag3 ]sfpAiHp5>bm8[Y,6#d\(%$Ip5m9I=3lQ[ZU8/eY,O10I$-cB^$aRhSnt5+_5? @E%NlhIT>2`E,s=]=Jbm\&H)u?&%2X=F]dfQs&8"J((**eX.VSdcs3?Naubh8R,2n 8;U">U&3 T@$4]PZ0heGQp5F#oX16$sf#j7%ZclldM,;)R3;OW9$g[VEc7B%Xb*`J@e-FkKP/eh%-#2+9$%lP7p?d;6+ YJU'5+eiGoaaTpik`6(!0'M[WO7o*W\0JPu5NFJSPNRki,8V^S0h?>Mrf!YCrJYsW

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